Zr–Nb alloy with a low elastic modulus and a high strength can be obtained through the strengthening effects of spinodal decomposition. A large miscibility gap exists in the solid solution region, in which spinodal decomposition of the Zr–Nb solid solution may occur to form a Zr-rich phase and an Nb-rich phase with the same bcc structure.
The Mn-rich Mn-Cu-based alloys have attracted interest for their use in some vehicles and high-precision instruments to diminish vibration and noise because of the high damping capacity. This property has been associated with the martensitic transformation of this type of alloy. These alloys present an excellent combination of mechanical properties, high damping capacity, and shape memory effect. Additionally, Mn-Cu alloys exhibit good workability at casting, machining, forging, and rolling.
The phase decomposition kinetics in the Al-Zn alloys has been reported7 to occur very fast in spite of the low aging temperatures.
The Au-Ni system has been a testing ground for theories of phase stability. Gold solders have been in use for many years, especially in the jewellery trade and in dentistry. The gold-nickel alloy has excellent wetting and capillary flow characteristics. Its degree of interalloying with heat-resistant steels and chromium- and cobalt- bearing nickel alloys is extremely low. The usefulness of gold-nickel alloys as brazing media in the aero- engine, electronic, nuclear power and spacecraft industries is illustrated by data on the corrosion and oxidation resistance of joints made with these alloys in various heat-resistant materials and on their resistance to fracture under the influence of static, dynamic and impact loads in tests at subzero, normal and elevated temperatures.
The world’s most wear-resistant metal is a platinum-gold alloy. It’s 100 times stronger than high-strength steel, putting it in the same league as diamond and sapphire, nature’s most wear-resistant materials. The alloy is composed of 90% platinum and 10% gold, which is nothing new. The Pt-Au phase diagram is:
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver with trace amounts of copper and other metals. Its color ranges from pale to bright yellow, depending on the proportions of gold and silver. It has been produced artificially, and is also known as “green gold“. Gold–copper (Au–Cu) phases were employed already by pre-Columbian civilizations, essentially in decorative arts, whereas nowadays, they emerge in nanotechnology as an important catalyst. The knowledge of the phase diagram is critical to understanding the performance of this material.
An iron–nickel alloy is a group of alloys that in geology referred to as telluric planetary cores (including Earth’s). Some manufactured alloys of iron–nickel are called nickel steel or stainless steel. Depending on the intended use of the alloy, these are usually fortified with small amounts of other metals, such as chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, and titanium.